- On January 1, 2023
- In Tips for travellers
10x Amsterdam In WWII History Facts You Want To Know in 2023
The Netherlands went through a lot during the Second World War, between 1940 and 1945. This list contains 5 interesting facts about Amsterdam in WWII and 5 frequently asked questions about the history of Amsterdam.
Second World War Facts
Why did WWII start?
The Second World War began on September 1st, 1939, when Germany invaded Poland. This was the beginning of a six-year conflict that would involve nearly every nation in the world. The primary cause of the war was Germany’s aggressive expansionism, which led to the invasion of other countries such as Czechoslovakia and France. Britain and France declared war on Germany in response to the invasion of Poland, and thus began a conflict that would claim the lives of millions of people. In addition to expansionism, other causes of the Second World War include nationalism, the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany, and the failure of previous diplomatic efforts to prevent conflict.
What happened in Amsterdam In WWII?
The German occupation of the Netherlands and Amsterdam can be divided into three parts. After the invasion on May 10, 1940 to June 22, 1941, the ‘better than expected occupation’ part took place; Germans implemented a ‘velvet glove’ approach and the economic exploitation remained limited.GET AMSTERDAM APP >
From June 22, 1941 to June 6, 1944, as the war progressed less and less in Germany’s favour, economic exploitation of the Dutch increased and the occupation became grimmer.
The third and final part started on June 6, 1944 and lasted to May 4, 1945. Hunger and shortages culminate during the Hunger Winter. German occupying forces increasingly lose their grip and also become increasingly incalculable. Leaders exert a moderating influence, but destruction is still being wrought. Throughout the German occupation the persecution of Dutch Jews was ever present.
When did Nazi Germany invade Amsterdam?
The war started for Amsterdam with the sound of propellor engines on May 10, 1940, around 3:00 am. German bombers flew over Amsterdam on their way to attack Schiphol Airport. But in a sense the World War II had already begun for Amsterdammers as early as August 1939, with the mobilisation.
The Netherlands maintained its neutrality, but the army was put on alert. 75 schools were used to house soldiers. 50,000 inhabitants had to make their homes available to soldiers.
Yearly on the 4th of May, Remembrance day is held on Dam Square in Amsterdam.
Why was Holland neutral in WW2?
At the start of World War 2 the Netherlands was a neutral country like it had been for over a century. This policy had kept them out of the bloody First World War. The Dutch sat on the sidelines as other countries in Europe first experienced slaughter on an industrial scale. The Dutch would only fight when attacked.
Was Amsterdam bombed in WWII?
Amsterdam was first bombed in WWII, on the 11th of May. On the second the day of the invasion a single Junkers Ju 88 bomber dropped four bombs on the centre of Amsterdam at the Herengracht. In total 44 civilians died and 79 were injured. After this incident the next serious bombing of Amsterdam was done by the allied forces.
On July 17, 1943 158 civilians were killed and 119 injured when allied bombers accidentally hit residential areas in Amsterdam Noord (North) instead of the intended war industry targets close by.
Why did Germany attack the Netherlands?
The Netherlands (and Belgium) were located in a strategic position between Germany and France. The route was logical for both the Germans and allies as fortifications were weak compared to the actual border between France and Germany. The Germans also wanted to turn Europe into an impenetrable fortress. Leaving the Netherlands open for an Allied counter attack was simply out of the question.
1 | Anne Frank: A Name Known Around The World
Anne Frank is the most famous Dutch person in the world, but she was actually born in Germany. Like many German jews her parents decided to leave Germany because of the rising antisemitism and its bad economy.
Her world famous diary actually might never have been published had it not been for Miep Gies, who found the diary and handed it to Otto Frank. She later said that if she had read the journal beforehand, she would never have given it but would have destroyed the pages.
According to Miep Gies, everyone who helped hide the Frank family would have faced the Germans because their names were in the book.
2 | Dutch Resistance
This is a fact about Amsterdam in WWII that not many people know. On a per capita basis the Netherlands had the most people hiding from the occupying forces. Nor have there been so many worker strikes in any other occupied country.
The most famous worker strike was the February Strike in 1941 when the Dutch demonstrated against the persecution of Dutch Jews. This act of public resistance, which was violently struck down, is still remembered every year in Amsterdam.
3 | The Bombing Of Rotterdam
Rotterdam used to have a beautiful historic city centre just like Amsterdam still has today. It was completely destroyed by a German air raid on May 14, 1940 between 13:27 pm and around 13:40 pm.
The bombing led to the surrender of Rotterdam the same day and under the threat of bombing other cities, starting with Utrecht, the Netherlands surrendered to the Germans on May 15. Other historical city centres like Amsterdam’s would be spared the horror of Rotterdam.
4 | Homosexuality During World War 2
Unlike in Germany, no people were arrested or prosecuted in the Netherlands for being homosexual. There were cases of Jews and resistance fighters being arrested who were dealt with extra severely after their homosexuality became known.
One of those Gay resistance fighters was anti-fascist Willem Arondoes. Arondoes led a group of resistance fighters that bombed the public records of Amsterdam. The records there were used by the Nazis in the persecution of Dutch Jews. Before being executed Arondoes loudly proclaimed:
“Let it be known that homosexuals are not cowards!”
Cafe ‘t Mandje Zeedijk: Tolerance & Resistance
Cafe ‘t Mandje was the first cafe in Amsterdam where regular and homosexual people mingled and partied together. The cafe is located on the Zeedijk in Amsterdam Red Light District and close to the then Jewish quarters.
German soldiers were not allowed to go in the area, because they’d get too distracted. Cafe owner (a lesbian herself) Bet van Beeren – aunt of Diana van Laar – hid several jews in the attic of the cafe.
Her brother is said to have stored resistance weapons in the basement. Whilst regular German soldiers weren’t allowed in the area higher officers used to actually go for a drink in this cafe!
5 | Dam Square Shooting
On May 7, 1945, two days after the liberation of the Netherlands people were out celebrating the allied victory on Dam Square, Amsterdam’s main square. Then suddenly around 3:00 pm German soldiers suddenly started opening fire into the big crows of partygoers.
German soldiers were stationed at a corner of Dam Square and fired from the balcony. In total 32 people were killed and 231 injured. A bloody start for a city that regained its freedom.
If you’d like to know more about the May 7th shooting incident we recommend this Dam Square Shooting article.
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Do you know other facts about Amsterdam in WWII? Drop them in the comment section below and share it with the world.